(74) Villagómez GN, Brachvogel RC, Kárpáti Z, Leonhardt SD, Schmitt T, Ruedenauer FA (2023). A common protocol for reliable comparison of pollen fatty acid profiles: highlighting pitfalls and proposing a methodology for ecological research. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 11: 1141832.

(73) Nebauer CA, Schleifer MC, Ruedenauer FA, Leonhardt SD, & Spaethe J (2023). Perception, regulation, and fitness effects of pollen phytosterols in the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris. American Journal of Botany e16165.

(72) Eschlwech F, Ruedenauer FA, Leonhardt SD, Minceva M, & Luca SV (2023). Liquid-liquid chromatography separation of hemp terpenes with repellent properties against Hyalomma marginatum: A multi-methodological approach. Industrial Crops and Products 197: 116562.

(71) Keller A, Ankenbrand MJ, Bruelheide H, Dekeyzer S, Enquist BJ, Erfanian MB, Falster DS, Gallagher RV, Hammock J, Kattge J, Leonhardt SD, Madin JS, Maitner B, Neyret M, Onstein RE, Pearse WD, Poelen JH, Salguero-Gomez R, Schneider FD, Tóth AB, & Penone C (2022). Ten (mostly) simple rules to future-proof trait data in ecological and evolutionary sciences. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 00: 1– 15.

(70) Chui S-X, Wahab RBHA & Leonhardt SD (2022) Stingless bee (Apidae: Meliponini) foraging and predation at trunk resin sources: Rare observations captured with microcontroller-based camera traps in a lowland dipterocarp forest. Insectes Sociaux

(69) Ollerton J, Trunschke J, Havens K, Landaverde-González P, Keller A, Gilpin A-M, Rodrigo Rech A, Baronio GJ, Phillips BJ, Mackin C, Stanley DA, Treanore E, Baker E, Rotheray EL, Erickson E, Fornoff F, Brearley FQ, Ballantyne G, Iossa G, Stone GN, Bartomeus I, Stockan JA, Leguizamón J, Prendergast K, Rowley L, Giovanetti M, de Oliveira Bueno R, Wesselingh RA, Mallinger R, Edmondson S, Howard SR, Leonhardt SD, Rojas-Nossa SV, Brett M, Joaqui T, Antoniazzi R, Burton VJ, Feng H-H, Tian Z-X, Xu Q, Zhang C, Shi C-L, Huang S-Q, Cole L J, Bendifallah L, Ellis EE, Hegland SJ, Straffon Díaz S, Lander TA, Mayr, AV, Dawson, R, Eeraerts, M, Armbruster, WS, Walton, B, Adjlane, N, Falk, S, Mata, L, Goncalves Geiger A, Carvell C, Wallace C, Ratto, F, Barberis M, Kahane F, Connop S, Stip A, Sigrist MR, Vereecken NJ, Klein A-M, Baldock K & Arnold SEJ (2022) Pollinator-flower interactions in gardens during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown of 2020. Journal of Pollination Ecology 31: 87-96.

(68) Leonhardt SD (2022) Bestäuber im Sinkflug. In: Gottfried, E. (eds) Landwirtschaft - Wege aus der Krise. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 

(67) Peters B, Keller A & Leonhardt SD (2022) Diets maintained in a changing world: Does land-use intensification alter wild bee communities by selecting for flexible generalists? Ecology & Evolution 12: e8919.

(66) Leonhardt SD, Peters B & Keller A (2022) Do amino and fatty acid profiles of pollen provisions correlate with bee gut and pollen microbiomes in the mason bee Osmia bicornis? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 377: 20210171

(65) Wayo K, Leonhardt SD, Sritongchuay T & Bumrungsri S (2022) Homing ability in a tropical Asian stingless bee is influenced by interaction between release distances and urbanization. Ecological Entomology 47( 4): 536– 543.

(64) Parreño MA, Alaux C, Brunet J-L, Buydens L, Filipiak M, Henry M, Keller A, Klein A-M, Kuhlmann M, Leroy C, Meeus I, Palmer-Young E, Piot N, Requier F, Ruedenauer F, Smagghe G, Stevenson PC & Leonhardt SD (2021) Critical links between biodiversity and health in wild bee conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution

(63) Chui S-X, Keller A & Leonhardt SD (2021) Functional resin use in solitary bees. Ecological Entomology

(62) Venjakob C, Ruedenauer FA, Klein AM & Leonhardt SD (2021) Variation in nectar quality across 34 grassland plant species. Plant Biology

(61) Ruedenauer FA, Biewer NW, Nebauer CA, Scheiner M, Spaethe J & Leonhardt SD (2021) Honey bees can taste amino and fatty acids in pollen, but not sterols. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution

(60) Wilson RS, Keller A, Shapcott A, Leonhardt SD, Sickel W, Hardwick JL, Heard TA, Kaluza BF & Wallace HM (2021) Many small rather than few large sources identified in long-term bee pollen diets in agroecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 310: 107296.

(59) Elliott B, Wilson RS, Shapcott A, Keller A, Newis R, Cannizzaro C, Burwell CJ, Smith TJ, Leonhardt SD, Kämper W & Wallace HM (2021) Pollen diets and niche overlap of honey bees and native bees in protected areas. Basic and Applied Ecology 50: 169-180.

(58) van der Kooi CJ, Vallejo-Marín M & Leonhardt SD (2021) Mutualisms and (a)symmetry in plant-pollinator interactions. Current Biology 31: R91-99.

(57) Wilson RS, Leonhardt SD, Burwell CJ, Fuller C, Smith TJ, Kaluza BF & Wallace HM (2020) Landscape simplification modifies trap-nesting bee and wasp communities in the subtropics. Insects 11: 853.

(56) Keller A, McFrederick Q, Dharampal P, Steffan S, Danforth B & Leonhardt SD (2020) (More than) Hitchhikers through the network: The shared microbiome of bees and flowers. Current Opinion in Insect Science

(55) Alberoni D, Alix A, Dicks L, Dietzsch AC, Krahner A, Kroder S, Leonhardt SD, Mommaerts V, Mukherjee N, Pettis J, Simon Delso N, Sançana A, Vanbergen AJ, Vasileiadis VP, van der Kooi CJ, Villa S, Whitehorn PR, Wood T, Woodcock B (2020). What do we currently know about the impacts of pesticide and fertiliser use in farmland on the effectiveness of adjacent pollinator conservation measures such as flower strips and hedgerows, and what additional research is needed? Report prepared by an EKLIPSE Expert Working Group. UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Wallingford, United Kingdom:

Link to policy brief (pdf).

(54) Seitz N, vanEngelsdorp D & Leonhardt SD (2020) Are native and non-native pollinator friendly plants equally valuable for native wild bee communities? Ecology and Evolution 10: 12838– 12850.

Featured in National Geographic:


(53) Leonhardt SD, Lihoreau M & Spaethe J (2020) Mechanisms of nutritional resource exploitation by insects. Insects 11: 570.

Editorial to Special Issue:

(52) Ruedenauer FA, Sydow D, Spaethe J & Leonhardt SD (2020) Young bumblebees may rely on both direct pollen cues and early experience when foraging. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 287: 20201615.

(51) Grund-Mueller N, Ruedenauer FA, Spaethe J & Leonhardt SD (2020) Adding amino acids to a sucrose diet is not sufficient to support longevity of adult bumblebees. Insects 11: 247.

(50) Trinkl M, Kaluza BF, Wallace HM, Heard TA, Keller A & Leonhardt SD (2020) Floral species richness correlates with changes in the nutritional quality of larval diets in a stingless bee. Insects 11: 125.

(49) Venjakob C, Leonhardt SD & Klein AM (2020) Inter-individual nectar chemistry changes of field scabious, Knautia arvensis. Insects: 11, 75.

(48) Requier F & Leonhardt SD (2020) Beyond flowers: including non-floral resources in bee conservation schemes. Journal of Insect Conservation

(47) Ruedenauer FA, Raubenheimer D, Kessner-Beierlein D, Grund-Mueller N, Noack L, Spaethe J, & Leonhardt SD (2020) Best be(e) on low fat: linking nutrient perception, regulation and fitness. Ecology Letters 23: 545-554. doi:10.1111/ele.13454.

Press release:

Radio coverage:

(46) Ruedenauer FA, Spaethe J, van der Kooi C & Leonhardt SD (2019) Pollinator or pedrigee: which factors determine the evolution of pollen nutrients? Oecologia 191: 349-358.

(45) Ruedenauer FA, Leonhardt SD, Lunau K & Spaethe J (2019) Bumblebees are able to perceive amino acids via chemotactile antennal stimulation. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 205: 321-331.

(44) Kämper W, Kaluza BF, Wallace HM, Schmitt T & Leonhardt SD (2019) Habitats shape the cuticular chemical profiles of stingless bees. Chemoecology 29: 125-133.

(43) Seitz N, vanEngelsdorp D & Leonhardt SD (2019) Conserving bees in destroyed landscapes: The potentials of reclaimed sand mines. Global Ecology and Conservation 19: e00642.

(42) Drescher N, Klein AM, Schmitt T & Leonhardt SD (2019) A clue on bee glue: new insight into the sources and factors driving resin intake in honeybees (Apis mellifera). Plos One 14(2): e0210594.

(41) Pufal G, Memmert J, Leonhardt SD & Minden V (2018) Negative bottom-up effects of sulfadiazine, but not penicillin and tetracycline, in soil subtitute on plants and higher trophic levels. Environmental Pollution 245: 531-544.

(40) Ruedenauer FA, Spaethe J & Leonhardt SD (2018) Do honeybees (Apis mellifera) differentiate between different pollen types? Plos One 13(11): e0205821.

(39) Kaluza BF, Wallace HM, Heard TA, Minden V, Klein AM & Leonhardt SD (2018) Social bees are fitter in more biodiverse environments. Scientific Reports 8: 12353.

Press release:

(38) Minden V, Schnetger B, Pufal G & Leonhardt SD (2018) Antibiotic-induced effects on scaling relationships and on plant element contents in herbs and grasses. Ecology and Evolution 8(13): 6699-6713.

(37) Leonhardt SD (2017) Chemical ecology of stingless bees. Journal of Chemical Ecology 43(4): 385-402.

(36) Kaluza BF, Wallace H, Keller A, Heard TA, Jeffers B, Drescher N, Blüthgen N & Leonhardt SD (2017) Generalist social bees maximize resource diversity intake in plant species rich and resource abundant environments. Ecosphere 8(3): e01758.

(35) Minden V, Deloy A, Volkert AM, Leonhardt SD & Pufal G (2017) Antibiotics impact plant traits, even at small concentrations. AoB PLANTS 9(2): plx010.

(34) Ruedenauer FALeonhardt SD, Schmalz F, Rössler W & Strube-Bloss MF (2017) Separation of different pollen types by chemotactile sensing in Bombus terrestris. Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 1435-1442.

(33) Junker RR, Kuppler J, Amo L, Blande JD, Borges RM, van Dam NM, Dicke M, Dötterl S, Ehlers B, Etl F, Gershenzon J, Glinwood R, Gols R, Groot AT, Heil M, Hoffmeister M, Holopainen JK, Jarau S, John L, Kessler A, Knudsen JT, Kost C, Larue-Kontic AAC, Leonhardt SD, Lucas-Barbosa D, Majetic CJ, Menzel F, Parachnowitsch AL, Pasquet RS, Poelman EH, Raguso RA, Ruther J, Schiestl FP, Schmitt T, Tholl D, Unsicker SB, Verhulst N, Visser ME, Weldegergis BT & Köllner TG (2017) Co-variation and phenotypic integration in chemical communication displays: biosynthetic constraints and eco-evolutionary implications. New Phytologist DOI:10.1111/nph.14505.

(32) Drescher N, Klein AM, Neumann P, Yanez O & Leonhardt SD (2017) Inside honeybee hives: Impact of natural propolis on the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor and associated viruses. Insects 8(15): DOI:10.3390/insects8010015.

(31) Leonhardt SD, Kaluza BF, Wallace H & Heard TA (2016) Resources or landmarks: which factors drive homing success in Tetragonula carbonaria foraging in natural and disturbed landscapes? Journal of Comparative Physiology A 202(9): 701-708.

(30) Kriesell L, Hilpert A & Leonhardt SD (2016) Different but the same: bumblebee species collect pollen of different plant sources but similar amino acid profiles. Apidologie 48(1): 102-116.

(29) Kämper W, Werner PK, Hilpert A, Westphal C, Blüthgen N, Eltz T & Leonhardt SD (2016) How landscape, pollen intake and pollen quality affect colony growth in Bombus terrestris. Landscape Ecology 31(10): 2245-2258.

(28) Ruedenauer FA, Spaethe J & Leonhardt SD (2016) Individual bumblebees forage flexibly to collect high quality pollen. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 70(8): 1209-1217.

(27) Leonhardt SD, Menzel F, Nehring V & Schmitt T (2016) Ecology and evolution of communication in social insects (Review article). CELL 164(6): 1277-1287.

(26) Kaluza BF, Wallace HM, Heard TA, Klein AM & Leonhardt SD (2016) Urban gardens promote bee foraging over natural habitats and plantations. Ecology and Evolution 6(5): 1304-1316.

(25) Wallace HM & Leonhardt SD (2015) Do hybrid trees inherit invasive characteristics? Fruits of Corymbia torelliana X C. citridorahybrids and potential for seed dispersal bees. Plos One 10(9): e0138868.

(24) Ruedenauer FA, Spaethe J & Leonhardt SD (2015) How to know which food is good for you: bumblebees use taste to discriminate between different concentrations of food differing in nutrient content. Journal of Experimental Biology 218: 2233-2240.

Inside article:

(23) Hülsmann M, von Wehrden H, Klein AM & Leonhardt SD (2015) Plant diversity and composition compensate for negative effects of urbanization on foraging bumblebees. Apidologie 46(6): 760-770.

(22) Leonhardt SD, Wallace HM, Blüthgen N & Wenzel F (2015) Potential role of environmentally derived cuticular compounds in stingless bees. Chemoecology 25(4): 159-167.

(21) Drescher N, Wallace HM, Katouli M, Massaro CF & Leonhardt SD (2014) Diversity matters: how bees benefit from different resin sources. Oecologia 176(4): 943-953.

(20) Leonhardt SD, Baumann A-M, Wallace HM, Brooks P & Schmitt T (2014) The chemistry of an unusual seed disperal mutualism: bees use a complex set of chemical cues to find their partner. Animal Behavior 98: 41-51.

(19) Massaro CF, Smyth TJ, Smyth WF, Heard T, Leonhardt SD, Katouli M, Wallace HM & Brooks P (2014) Phloroglucinols from anti-microbial deposit-resins of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria). Phytotherapy Research 29(1): 48-58.

(18) Leonhardt SD & Kaltenpoth M (2014) Microbial communities of three sympatric Australian stingless bee species. Plos One 9(8): e105718.

(17) Garibaldi LA, Carvalheiro LG, Leonhardt SD, Aizen MA, Blaauw BR, Isaacs R, Kuhlmann M, Kleijn D, Klein AM, Kremen C, Morandin L, Scheper J & Winfree R (2014) From research to action: practices to enhance crop yield through wild pollinators. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12(8): 439–447.

(16) Leonhardt SD, Heard T & Wallace HM (2014) Differences in the resource intake of two sympatric Australian stingless bee species. Apidologie 45(4): 514-525.

(15) Leonhardt SD, Gallai N, Garibaldi LA, Kuhlmann M & Klein AM (2013) Economic gain, stability of pollination and bee diversity decrease from southern to northern Europe. Basic and Applied Ecology 14(6): 461-471.

(14) Leonhardt SD, Rasmussen C & Schmitt T (2013) Genes versus environment: geography and phylogenetic relationships shape the chemical profiles of stingless bees on a global scale. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280: 20130680.

(13) Rushmore J, Leonhardt SD & Drea CM (2012) Sight or scent: lemur sensory reliance in detecting food quality varies with feeding ecology. Plos One 7(8): e41558.

(12) Leonhardt SD & Blüthgen N (2012) The same, but different: Pollen foraging in honeybee and bumblebee colonies. Apidologie 43(4): 449-464.

(11) Leonhardt SD, Form S, Blüthgen N, Schmitt T & Feldhaar H (2011) Genetic relatedness and chemical profiles in an unusually peaceful eusocial bee. Journal of Chemical Ecology 37(10): 1117-1126.

(10) Leonhardt SD, Schmitt T & Blüthgen N (2011) Tree resin composition, collection behavior and selective filters shape chemical profiles of tropical bees. Plos One 6(8): e23445.

(9) Leonhardt SD, Blüthgen N & Schmitt T (2011) Chemical profiles of body surfaces and nests from six Bornean stingless bee species. Journal of Chemical Ecology 37 (1): 98-104.

(8) Leonhardt SD, Wallace HM & Schmitt T (2011) The cuticular profiles of Australian stingless are shaped by resin of the eucalypt tree Corymbia torelliana. Austral Ecology 36: 537-543.

(7) Leonhardt SD, Zeilhofer S, Blüthgen N & Schmitt T (2010) Stingless bees use terpenes as olfactory cues to find resin sources. Chemical Senses 35 (7): 603-611.

(6) Leonhardt SD, Jung LM, Schmitt T & Blüthgen N (2010) Terpenoids tame aggressors: role of chemicals in stingless bee communal nesting. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 64 (9): 1415-1423.

(5) Leonhardt SD, Blüthgen N & Schmitt T (2009) Smelling like resin: terpenoids account for species-specific cuticular profiles in Southeast-Asian stingless bees. Insectes Sociaux 56 (2): 157-170.

(4) Leonhardt SD & Blüthgen N (2009) A sticky affair: resin collection by Bornean stingless bees. Biotropica 41 (6): 730-736.

(3) Leonhardt SD, Tung J, Leal M & Drea CM (2008) Seeing red: behavioral evidence of trichromatic color vision in strepsirrhine primates. Behavioral Ecology 20 (1): 1-12.

(2) Leonhardt SD, Brandstaetter AS & Kleineidam CJ (2007). Reformation process of the neuronal template for nestmate recognition cues in the carpenter ant (Camponotus floridanus). Journal of Comparative Physiology A – Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural and Behavioral Physiology 193 (9): 993-1000.

(1) Leonhardt SD, Dworschak K, Eltz T & Blüthgen N (2007) Foraging loads of stingless bees and utilisation of stored nectar for pollen harvesting. Apidologie 38 (2): 125-135.



(4) Leonhardt SD & Drescher N (2018) Die Bienen-Hausapotheke: Propolis – beim Imker nicht beliebt, aber von unschätzbarem Wert. Bienen & Natur 11.2018.

(3) Leonhardt SD (2015) To be(e) down under. Bienen und ihre Gefährdung in Australien. In Lorenz, Stephan/ Stark, Kerstin (Hg.): Menschen und Bienen. Ein nachhaltiges Miteinander in Gefahr. München: Oekom-Verlag (i.E., 4.6.15).

(2) Leonhardt SD (2010) When bees smell like trees: stingless bees with resinous perfumes. Aussie Bee Online Article 15.

(1) Leonhardt SD (2008) Botschaften aus Borneo. Spektrum Online Online Blog: